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Useful terminology

UTC (coordinated universal time) - The worldwide standard for time and date is the Coordinated Universal Time, formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). There are twentyfive time zones in the world (in addition to some non-standard thirty minute time zones) and each one is fifteen degrees wide of longitude. Time zones are measured East and West starting from zero degree meridian crossing through Greenwich (England), also know as the Prime Meridian of the World.

DST (Daylight saving time) - Also known as "Summer Time", the Daylight Saving Time was first suggested in 1784 by Benjamin Franklin, but it was adopted only in 1916, during World War I, by several European nations. By moving the clocks one hour ahead when the Summer Time begins (Spring), energy is saved and longer days can be enjoyed. Then when the days start to naturally shorten (Autumn), clocks are adjusted back one hour to standard time. When you call the race organizer, make sure you are calling at a decent hour, and also check if the nation's time is influenced by the local Summer Time. Pay attention, because not every country observes Daylight Saving Time, and in addition to this, Summer and Winter are opposite periods whether you are calling in the northern or in the southern hemisphere.

ITU E.161 phone keypad - Sometimes, to help quickly memorizing it, a combination of numbers and alphabetical letters can be found when indicating a phone number, mapping letters to numbers (for example the number "1-555-RUNNERS" corresponds to 1-555-7866377). The worldwide recognized standard phone keypads are the ITU E.161 (also known as ANSI T1.703-1995/1999 or ISO/IEC 9995-8:1994) and the North American keypad. Several other variations involve a different position of the letters I, O, Q, Z and a different use of the numbers 0 and 1.

CC (Country code) - This is the national prefix to be used when calling from another nation to the listed nation. In some cases a city or area code is also needed.

IDD (International Direct Dialing prefix) - This is the international prefix to be used when calling to another nation from the listed nation. Simply dial the international prefix plus the country code of the nation you are calling.

NDD (National Direct Dialing prefix) - This is the prefix to be used when calling within the listed nation, from one city to another (it may be not necessary when calling a different city in the same area). Simply dial the national prefix plus the city or area code for the location you are calling.


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